Language Editing

International Journal of Education and Teaching Zone (IJETZ) requires manuscripts submitted to meet international standards for the English language to be considered for publication. Articles are normally published only in English.

For authors who would like their manuscript to receive language editing or proofing to improve the clarity of the manuscript and help highlight their research, IJETZ Journal recommends the language-editing services provided by the internal or external partners (contact Principal of the IJETZ Journal for further information).

Note that sending your manuscript for language editing does not imply or guarantee that it will be accepted for publication by the IJETZ Journal. Editorial decisions on the scientific content of a manuscript are independent of whether it has received language editing or proofing by the partner services, or other services.

Language Style

The default language style at IJETZ Journal is American English. If you prefer your article to be formatted in British English, please specify this on your manuscript on the first page.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

There are a few simple ways to maximize your article's discoverability. Follow the steps below to improve the search results of your article:

  1. Include a few of your article's keywords in the title of the article.
  2. Do not use long article titles.
  3. Pick 3 to 5 keywords using a mix of generic and more specific terms on the article subject(s).
  4. Use the maximum amount of keywords in the first 2 sentences of the abstract.
  5. Use some of the keywords in level 1 headings.


The title should be in lower case, in the center, and Times New Roman at the top of the page with a font size of 14. The title should be concise, omitting terms that are implicit and, where possible, be a statement of the main result or conclusion presented in the manuscript. Abbreviations should be avoided within the title.

Witty or creative titles are welcome, only if relevant and within the measure. Consider if a title meant to be thought-provoking might be misinterpreted as offensive or alarming. In extreme cases, the editorial office may veto a title and propose an alternative.

Authors and Affiliations

All names are listed together and separated by commas. Provide exact and correct author names as these will be indexed in official archives. Affiliations should be keyed to the author's name with superscript numbers and be listed as follows: Institut/University/Organisation, Country (without detailed address information such as city zip codes or street names).

Example: Study Program/Faculty/Institution, Province, City, Country.

specifically for the section (Study Program/Faculty/Institution), the author can choose to include the complete or two sections, and it can also only be one section such as an institution.

The Corresponding Author(s) should be marked with superscript. Provide the exact contact email address of the corresponding author(s) in a separate section below the Keywords.

Headings and Sub-headings

Headings need to be defined in Times New Roman, 14, bold, and subheadings defined in Times New Roman, 12, bold.


As a primary goal, the abstract should render the general significance and conceptual advance of the work clearly accessible to a broad readership. In the abstract, minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references. The word length is not more than 300 words, written in English.


  1. Background of the study.
  2. Aims and scope of the paper.
  3. Methods.
  4. Result and Discussion.
  5. Conclusions.
  6. References


All article types: you may provide up to 5 keywords, at least 3 are mandatory, separate with the commas and alphabetical order.


The IJETZ Journal recommended a manuscript written using MS Word 97-2010. The length of the manuscript is approximately 8 to 20 pages, written in A4 paper format, margins: top 3; left 3,6 cm; right 2,2 cm; bottom 2,6 cm, two columns. The body text uses” Times New Roman”, font size 12, space 1,15 (see Manuscript Template).


The use of abbreviations should be kept to a minimum. Non-standard abbreviations should be avoided unless they appear at least four times, and are defined upon first use in the main text. Consider also giving a list of non-standard abbreviations at the end, immediately before the Acknowledgments.



The introduction is a little different from the short and concise abstract. The reader needs to know the background of your research and, most importantly, why your research is important in this context. What critical question does your research address? Why should the reader be interested?

The purpose of the Introduction is to stimulate the reader's interest and to provide pertinent background information necessary to understand the rest of the paper. You must summarize the problem to be addressed, give background on the subject, discuss previous research on the topic, and explain exactly what the paper will address, why, and how. A good thing to avoid is making your introduction into a minireview. There is a huge amount of literature out there, but as a scientist, you should be able to pick out the things that are most relevant to your work and explain why. This shows an editor/reviewer/reader that you really understand your area of research and that you can get straight to the most important issues.

Keep your Introduction to be very concise, well structured, and inclusive of all the information needed to follow the development of your findings. Do not over-burden the reader by making the introduction too long. Get to the key parts of other papers sooner rather than later.


  1. Begin the Introduction by providing a concise background account of the problem studied.
  2. State the objective of the investigation. Your research objective is the most important part of the introduction.
  3. Establish the significance of your work: Why was there a need to conduct the study?
  4. Introduce the reader to the pertinent literature. Do not give a full history of the topic. Only quote previous work having a direct bearing on the present problem. (State of the art, relevant research to justify the novelty of the manuscript.)
  5. State the gap analysis or novelty statement.
  6. Clearly state your hypothesis, and the variables investigated, and concisely summarize the methods used.
  7. Define any abbreviations or specialized/regional terms.

Example of a novelty statement or the gap analysis statement at the end of the Introduction section (after the state of the art of the previous research survey): "........ (short summary of background)....... A few researchers focused on ....... There have been limited studies concerned on ........ Therefore, this research intends to ................. The objectives of this research are .........".

Be concise and aware of who will be reading your manuscript and make sure the Introduction is directed to that audience. Move from general to specific; from the problem in the real world to the literature to your research. Lastly, please avoid making a subsection in the Introduction.

Theoretical Support (Optional)

Theoretical support or literature review represents the theoretical core of an article. The purpose of a literature review is to “look again” at what other researchers have done regarding a specific topic. A literature review is a means to an end, namely to provide background to and serve as motivation for the objectives and hypotheses that guide your own research. A good literature review does not merely summarise relevant previous research. In the literature review, the researcher critically evaluates, re-organizes and synthesizes the work of others.


In the Method section, you explain clearly how you conducted your research in order to: (1) enable readers to evaluate the work performed and (2) permit others to replicate your research. You must describe exactly what you did: what and how experiments were run, what, how much, how often, where, when, and why equipment and materials were used. The main consideration is to ensure that enough detail is provided to verify your findings and to enable the replication of the research. You should maintain a balance between brevity (you cannot describe every technical issue) and completeness (you need to give adequate detail so that readers know what happened).


  1. Define the population and the methods of sampling.
  2. Describe the instrumentation.
  3. Describe the procedures and if relevant, the time frame.
  4. Describe the analysis plan.
  5. Describe any approaches to ensure validity and reliability.
  6. Describe statistical tests and the comparisons made; ordinary statistical methods should be used without comment; advanced or unusual methods may require a literature citation.
  7. Describe the scope and/or limitations of the methodology you used.

In the social sciences, it is important to always provide sufficient information to allow other researchers to adopt or replicate your methodology. This information is particularly important when a new method has been developed or innovative use of an existing method is utilized. Last, please avoid making a subsection in Method.

Result and Discussion

The purpose of the Results and Discussion is to state your findings and make interpretations and/or opinions, explain the implications of your findings, and make suggestions for future research. Its main function is to answer the questions posed in the introduction, explain how the results support the answers and, how the answers fit in with existing knowledge on the topic. The Discussion is considered the heart of the paper and usually requires several writing attempts.

The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction.

To make your message clear, the discussion should be kept as short as possible while clearly and fully stating, supporting, explaining, and defending your answers and discussing other important and directly relevant issues. Care must be taken to provide commentary and not a reiteration of the results. Side issues should not be included, as these tend to obscure the message.


  1. State the major findings of the study.
  2. Explain the meaning of the findings and why the findings are important.
  3. Support the answers with the results. Explain how your results relate to expectations and to the literature, clearly stating why they are acceptable and how they are consistent or fit in with previously published knowledge on the topic.
  4. Relate the findings to those of similar studies.
  5. Consider alternative explanations of the findings.
  6. Implications of the study.
  7. Acknowledge the study's limitations.
  8. Make suggestions for further research.

It is easy to inflate the interpretation of the results. Be careful that your interpretation of the results does not go beyond what is supported by the data. The data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. Please avoid a makeover interpretation of the results, unwarranted speculation, inflating the importance of the findings, tangential issues or over-emphasize the impact of your research.

Work with Graphic:

Figures and tables are the most effective way to present results. Captions should be able to stand alone, such that the figures and tables are understandable without the need to read the entire manuscript. Besides that, the data represented should be easy to interpret.


  1. The graphic should be simple, but informative.
  2. The use of colour is encouraged.
  3. The graphic should uphold the standards of a scholarly, professional publication.
  4. The graphic must be entirely original, unpublished artwork created by one of the co-authors.
  5. The graphic should not include a photograph, drawing, or caricature of any person, living or deceased.
  6. Do not include postage stamps or currency from any country, or trademarked items (company logos, images, and products).
  7. Avoid choosing a graphic that already appears within the text of the manuscript.


The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points. It is important that the conclusion does not leave the questions unanswered.


  1. State your conclusions clearly and concisely. Be brief and stick to the point.
  2. Explain why your study is important to the reader. You should instil in the reader a sense of relevance.
  3. Prove to the reader, and the scientific community, that your findings are worthy of note. This means setting your paper in the context of previous work. The implications of your findings should be discussed within a realistic framework.

For most essays, one well-developed paragraph is sufficient for a conclusion, although in some cases, a two or three paragraph conclusion may be required. Another important thing about this section is (1) do not rewrite the abstract; (2) statements with "investigated" or "studied" are not conclusions; (3) do not introduce new arguments, evidence, new ideas, or information unrelated to the topic; (4) do not include evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

Acknowledgement (Optional)

Acknowledgement is addressed to a person and/or groups and also the institution that helps research both in a direct and indirect way.


All citations in the text must be in the reference list and vice-versa. Reference should be written according to the format of reference. Articles are required to use reference management (Mendeley, Zotero, Endnote) with style APA 7th edition. Unpublished reference is not suggested to be cited in the article.

Supplementary Material

IJETZ Journal does not support pushing important results and information into supplementary sections. However, data that are not of primary importance to the text, or which cannot be included in the article because it is too large or the current format does not permit it (such as movies, raw data traces, PowerPoint presentations, etc.) can be uploaded during the submission procedure and will be displayed along with the published article. Supplementary Materials can be uploaded as Data Sheet (Word, Excel, CSV, cdx, fasta, pdf or zip files), Presentation (PowerPoint, pdf or zip files), Supplementary Image (cdx, eps, jpeg, pdf, png or gif), Supplementary Table (word, excel, CSV or pdf), Audio (Mp3, Wav or WMA) or Video (Avi, Divx, Flv, MOV, mp4, Mpeg, mpg or WMV).

Supplementary material is not typeset so please ensure that all information is clearly presented, the appropriate caption is included in the file and not in the manuscript, and that the style conforms to the rest of the article.

General Style Guidelines for Figures

Figures help readers visualize the information you are trying to convey. Often, it is difficult to be sufficiently descriptive using words. Images can help in achieving the accuracy needed for a scientific manuscript. For example, it may not be enough to say, "The surface had nanometer-scale features." In this case, it would be ideal to provide a microscope image.

For images, be sure to:

  1. Include scale bars
  2. Consider labelling important items
  3. Indicate the meaning of different colours and symbols used

General Style Guidelines for Tables

Tables are a concise and effective way to present large amounts of data. You should design them carefully so that you clearly communicate your results to busy researchers.

The following is an example of a well-designed table:

  1. Clear and concise legend/caption
  2. Data is divided into categories for clarity
  3. Sufficient spacing between columns and rows
  4. Units are a provided font type and size are legible

Figure and Table Requirements


Figure and table legends font; 10 points Times New Roman, single-spaced. Legends should be preceded by the appropriate label, for example, "Figure 1" or "Table 4".

Colour Image Mode

Images must be submitted in the colour mode RGB.

Resolution Requirements

All images must be uploaded separately in the submission procedure and have a resolution of 300 dpi at the final size. Check the resolution of your figure by enlarging it to 150%. If the resolution is too low, the image will appear blurry, jagged or have a stair-stepped effect.

If you have submission queries, please contact